The Department of Modern and Classical Languages prepares students for a major or minor in both classical (Greek, Latin and Hebrew) and modern (Mandarin Chinese, French, German and Spanish) languages. The goals of our programs are threefold:

Develop linguistic proficiency

For the classical languages this means the ability to read Hebrew, Greek, and/or Latin with relative ease, and to develop interpretive skills. For the modern languages this means attaining an advanced level of competency in the areas of listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Develop cultural proficiency.

Courses in the Classical Languages section introduce students to the various cultures and civilizations that flourished in the Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean Basin during a period of roughly four millennia, running from the Early Bronze Age to Late Antiquity. Emphasis is given to translation and understanding of texts of the Old and New Testaments, as well as to classical and non-canonical texts.

Courses in Chinese, French, German and Spanish introduce students to the issues and lifestyles of contemporary society in the target cultures. Modern language courses also introduce students to the literary, historical, artistic, and religious development of language regions via the study of representative works of various literary genres and related art and cultural forms.

Develop a thoroughly Christian worldview.

We, the Department of Modern and Classical Languages, devote ourselves as disciples of Christ to the pursuit and practice of communicative and intercultural competencies in order to engage our neighbors with humility and hospitality in world languages. We do this in service of the church’s mission to the glory of God, who will be praised by every nation, tribe, and people. We exist to love the triune God and our neighbor through language.

The essence of a liberal arts education is to interact with all of God's world from a Christian perspective. Language study equips students to do so especially well by challenging them to master a language, to grasp concepts and shape their own, to ask significant questions and seek answers, and to become intellectually self-motivated, life-long learners and servants of Christ. The major offers a solid base for further professional training. Completion of the minor provides functional ability in the target language and preparation for becoming a bilingual professional.

Chair, Associate Professor Tamara Townsend
Assistant Chair, Associate Lecturer Rose Wang
Gerald F. Hawthorne Professor of New Testament Greek and Exegesis Jon Laansma
Professor Alan Savage
Associate Professors Sheri Abel, Christine Goring Kepner, Alexander Loney, Douglas Penney, Néstor Quiroa, Clinton Shaffer
Assistant Professors Andrew Burlingame, Melissa Elliot, Stephanie Gates
Senior Lecturers Sharenda Barlar, Timothy Klingler
Visiting Associate Lecturer Litong Chen
Visiting Lecturer Maria Garcia

Classical Languages

Greek Courses

GREK 101. Elementary Greek I. (4 Credits)

Intensive study of elementary grammar, syntax, and vocabulary; selected readings from Ancient Greek authors including those of the New Testament. Only offered in fall.

GREK 102. Elementary Greek II. (4 Credits)

Intensive study of elementary grammar, syntax, and vocabulary; selected readings from Ancient Greek authors including those of the New Testament. Only offered in spring. Prerequisite: GREK 101.

GREK 201. Intermediate Greek. (4 Credits)

Review of grammar and syntax accompanied by selections from various Greek authors including those of the New Testament. Prerequisite to further work in Greek. Offered only in Fall. Prerequisite: GREK 102 (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

GREK 331. Athenian Tragedy. (4 Credits)

Reading a tragedy by Sophocles or Euripides: Oedipus Tyrannus, Antigone, Medea, Bacchae, or other; introduction to literary and historical conventions of Athenian dram; style and dialect of choral poetry; meter; considerations of ethics, gender, myth, religion, and intertextuality. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 332. Homer's Iliad. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of selected books from the Iliad; introduction to Homeric dialect and meter and the Homeric question; issues of interpretation, especially warfare, ethics, glory, death, and the gods. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

GREK 333. Homer's Odyssey. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of selected books from the Odyssey, introduction to Homeric dialect and meter and the Homeric question; issues of interpretation, especially conceptions of the hero, humans, the gods, narrative, irony; final research paper on a topic of literary or historical interest. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

GREK 334. Advanced Koine Reading. (2 or 4 Credits)

New Testament book studies in Greek or selections from the Septuagint or the early church fathers to illustrate the development of thought within Christianity. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 335. Plato: The Apology of Socrates. (4 Credits)

The life and times of Athens' most enduring citizen by reading his own defense and others' accounts of his final days. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 336. Classical Rhetoric. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of speeches selected from Athenian orators: Gorgias, Antiphon, Lysias, Demosthenes, or others; genres and conventions of oratory (deliberative, epideictic, forensic); readings from Aristotle's Rhetoric (in translation) and its application to ancient oratory; tropes and rhetorical analysis. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 337. Greek Prose Composition. (2 Credits)

A systematic review of Greek morphology and syntax by writing sentences in Classical and Koine Greek. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 338. Herodotus' Histories. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of selections from Herodotus' Histories - the first surviving work of history in the West; introduction to the Ionic dialect and Herodotus' style; overview of the Histories' major themes - happiness, fate, freedom, ethnicity, religion, and justice. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 339. Myth/Hesiod. (2 Credits)

Study of Greek mythology through reading selections of Hesiod; overview of epic dialect and meter; examination of genre and comparison to eastern Mediterranean analogs (e.g., Genesis). Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 342. NT and Patristics. (4 Credits)

Selections from the Greek NT and patristic literature to illustrate the literary and intellectual background of the ancient world and early Christianity. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 343. Septuagint. (4 Credits)

Selections from the Septuagint and intertestamental literature to illustrate the literary and intellectual background of the ancient world leading to Christianity. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 344. Aesop's Fables. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the wit and wisdom, attitudes and beliefs of the Greek world through the reading of Aesop's fables in Greek with insight into the functions of oral literature. Course offered occasionally. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency.

GREK 345. Apocrypha. (4 Credits)

This course serves as an introduction to the non-canonical literature of the inter-testamental period. It explores the literary background to the Greek NT as well as the ideas, views, conditions and concerns shared by the god-fearing populace of the Greco-Roman world. Course offered occasionally. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency.

GREK 451. Greek Exegesis. (2 Credits)

Exegesis of books or selected portions of larger books of the Greek New Testament. Capability of translation is assumed because of the prerequisite. The purpose of the course is not to teach Greek grammar but to interpret the New Testament from the Greek text. Course may be repeated for different topics. Prerequisites: BITH 213 or BITH 317 or ARCH 213, and completion of GREK 201 or Greek competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 487. Topics in Greek Language and Literature. (2 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 489. Topics in Greek Language and Literature. (4 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Prerequisite: GREK 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

GREK 495. Independent Reading. (1 to 4 Credits)

Department approval required. Prerequisite: GREK 201 (or competency).

Hebrew Courses

HEBR 101. Elementary Hebrew I. (4 Credits)

Basic grammar, syntax, and vocabulary with readings from the Old Testament and modern Hebrew authors. Only offered in fall.

HEBR 102. Elementary Hebrew II. (4 Credits)

Basic grammar, syntax, and vocabulary with readings from the Old Testament and modern Hebrew authors. Only offered in spring. Prerequisite: HEBR 101.

HEBR 201. Intermediate Hebrew. (4 Credits)

Review of grammar and syntax with an introduction to the Masoretic text of the Old Testament, intensive reading from selected Old Testament texts and modern writers. Only offered in fall. Prerequisite: HEBR 102 (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

HEBR 487. Topics in Hebrew Language and Literature. (2 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Prerequisite: HEBR 201.

HEBR 489. Topics in Hebrew Language and Literature. (4 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Prerequisite: HEBR 201 or competency.

HEBR 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

An independent study in Hebrew which may be either advanced grammar, reading of the literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Hebrew Old Testament, or an exegesis of a portion of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament. Department approval required. Prerequisite: HEBR 201 or competency.

Latin Courses

LATN 101. Elementary Latin I. (4 Credits)

Introduction to syntax and vocabulary. Readings from representative ancient authors. Only offered in fall.

LATN 102. Elementary Latin II. (4 Credits)

Introduction to syntax and vocabulary. Readings from representative ancient authors. Only offered in spring. Prerequisite: LATN 101.

LATN 201. Intermediate Latin. (4 Credits)

Review of grammar. Translation of extensive selections from Vergil's Aeneid and other poets. Only offered in fall. Prerequisite: LATN 102 (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

LATN 333. Advanced Latin Readings. (2 or 4 Credits)

In-depth readings of selections of Latin literature, focusing on the classical periods of the Roman Republic and Empire. Emphasis will be placed on universal human themes expressed in the literature that shed light on cross-cultural connections between the ancient and modern worlds. Course is offered occasionally. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency.

LATN 341. Ovid's Metamorphoses. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of selections from Ovid's Metamorphoses, with particular attention to the similarities and differences between Greco-Roman myth and the Bible and to Ovid's historical and cultural context in the age of Augustus. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

LATN 342. Apuleius' Metamorphoses and C.S. Lewis. (4 Credits)

Intensive readings of selections from Apuleius' Metamorphoses, with particular attention to the inset narrative of "Cupid and Psyche" and Lewis' retelling of it in his novel "Till We Have Faces", along with selections from the Latin letters of C.S. Lewis. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

LATN 343. Seneca’s Moral Letters. (4 Credits)

Readings in Seneca's Moral Letters and study of his ethical philosophy Prerequisite: LATIN 201, or competency.

Tags: PI

LATN 487. Topics in Latin Language and Literature. (2 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Course is offered occasionally. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency.

LATN 489. Topics in Latin Language and Literature. (4 Credits)

Varied subjects. Designated studies in specialized genres, literature, culture, comparative studies, or inter-disciplinary studies. Course is offered occasionally. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency.

LATN 492. Independent Study in the Theory and Practice of Latin Pedagogy for Classical Schools. (4 Credits)

An independent course of study that combines observation and guest teaching in a local CCE school with the self-directed study of the history and theory of classical education. Students will develop their own materials for teaching Latin in a CCE school. Course is offered occasionally. Prerequisite: LATN 201 or competency. Instructor's permission required.

LATN 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

Department approval required. Prerequisite: LATN 201.

Modern Languages

Chinese Courses

CHIN 101. Elementary Mandarin Chinese I. (4 Credits)

Beginning Chinese with emphasis on understanding, speaking, reading, and writing. Laboratory practice.

CHIN 102. Elementary Mandarin Chinese II. (4 Credits)

Beginning Chinese with emphasis on understanding, speaking, reading, and writing. Laboratory practice.

CHIN 103. Accelerated Elementary Chinese. (4 Credits)

Intensive study of beginning Chinese with emphasis on understanding, speaking, reading and writing. Laboratory work. Required of heritage speakers of Chinese who speak and understand Chinese but who have little or no reading and writing ability. Also required of non-Chinese students with two years of high school Chinese or who place by test score into second-semester Chinese. Prerequisite: Heritage speakers of Chinese or non-Chinese students with only two years of high school Chinese or second semester Chinese by placement test score. Fall semester only.

CHIN 201. Intermediate Mandarin Chinese. (4 Credits)

Conversation, composition, and grammar review based on readings and videos; exploration of various aspects of Chinese culture. Laboratory practice. Prerequisite to any further study in Chinese. Prerequisite: CHIN 102 or CHIN 103 (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

CHIN 205. Learning the Chinese Alphabet and Pronunciation. (2 Credits)

This course builds familiarity with the Chinese alphabet and its phonetic system called Pinyin through manageable sets and groupings of the pinyin letters, songs, and mnemonic devices. Students will learn to use their mouth shape, tongue placement, and air flow while practicing the pronunciation. (Open to Wheaton College Summer Institute students only)

CHIN 301. Chinese Character Acquisition. (2 Credits)

Introduction to the basic component parts of Chinese characters and how characters vary as they are combined. May be taken concurrently with a Chinese language course at the intermediate level or above. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, Language Competency equivalent or permission of instructor.

CHIN 302. Chinese Through Scripture. (4 Credits)

Introduction to the Chinese Bible and its translation via selected readings. Focus on basic Christian terminologies and statements in Chinese about God, Jesus, worship, and prayer. Practice character recognition and oral communication through reading of the Bible. May be taken concurrently with a Chinese language course at the intermediate level or above. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, Language Competency equivalent, or permission of instructor.

CHIN 303. Chinese Grammar. (4 Credits)

Introduction of the major features of Chinese grammar. Discussion of structures, situations, and functions and practice with corresponding exercises. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, Language Competency equivalent or permission of instructor.

CHIN 331. Chinese Conversation. (4 Credits)

Intensive practice in oral communication and listening comprehension with emphasis on natural spoken expression based on audio materials, videos, and readings of authentic texts. Development of reading and writing skills through exposure to additional Chinese characters. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, Language Competency requirement or permission of instructor.

CHIN 332. Chinese Grammar and Composition. (4 Credits)

Introduction of the major features of Chinese grammar with discussion of structures, situations and functions and corresponding exercises. Development of punctuation, sentence and paragraph structures; practice with basic Chinese literary styles such as narration, description, exposition, argumentation, and correspondence. Emphasis on writing practices as well as group discussions, presentations and oral compositions. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, Language Competency requirement or permission of the instructor.

CHIN 334. Chinese Culture and Traditions. (4 Credits)

Introduction to Chinese customs and traditions, and cultural essence prior to study abroad in China. Special emphasis on comparing and contrasting similarities and differences of East and West to promote deeper understanding of Chinese culture as well as students' cultural heritage. Taught in English.

Tags: GP

CHIN 335. Business Chinese. (4 Credits)

Introduction of Chinese communication skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) used in various business situations. Practice of communicative skills through simulations and related business tasks. Exploration of social-cultural aspects of Chinese business contexts. May be taken concurrently with a Chinese language course at the intermediate level or above. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, language competency requirement or permission of instructor.

CHIN 336. Chinese Cinema. (4 Credits)

Viewing, analysis and critique of Mandarin-language films from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong depicting urban and rural contexts. Practice in aural comprehension, reading authentic texts, writing synopses and reviews, and discussion of character development, thematic analysis and cinematic techniques. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, language competency requirement, or permission of instructor.

Tags: GP

CHIN 337. Readings of Chinese Culture and Society. (4 Credits)

Selected readings of authentic texts on topics of Chinese culture, contemporary Chinese life, and social issues as well as from various literary works. Dual emphasis on language learning and building of cultural awareness. Prerequisite: CHIN 331 and CHIN 332, or permission of instructor.

CHIN 338. Advanced Chinese in China. (4 Credits)

Development of oral proficiency. Immersion experience and practice in intercultural competencies and language acquisition. Grammar, conversation, and composition taught by native speakers in a Chinese university setting. Course content and level variable. Offered in China only. Prerequisite: CHIN 334.

Tags: GP

CHIN 341. Special Topics in Chinese Language and Culture. (4 Credits)

Further development of oral proficiency. Immersion experience and practice in intercultural competencies and language acquisition. Advanced grammar, conversation, composition and cultural topics taught by native speakers in a Chinese university setting. Course content and level variable. Offered in China only. Prerequisite: CHIN 334.

Tags: GP

CHIN 346. Modern Chinese Literature. (4 Credits)

Introduction of literary works of major Chinese writers during the twentieth century. Readings include short stories, poetry and essays, each placed in its unique societal, historical, and political contexts so as to present a holistic picture of a modern China. All texts will be studied in Chinese. Prerequisite: CHIN 337 or permission of the instructor.

Tags: LE

CHIN 351. Classical Chinese Poetry. (2 Credits)

Development of basic tools for reading Classical (Literary) Chinese, the written language of China from the sixth century B.C. through the second century A.D. and beyond. Reading and analysis (oral and written) of the works of Tang poets including Li Bai, Du Fu, Wang Wei, and others. Development of formal spoken contemporary language that incorporates elements of Classical and semi-Classical Chinese. Prerequisite: CHIN 201, language competency requirement or permission of instructor.

CHIN 494. Senior Capstone Experience: Contemporary Chinese Literature and Its Social Reality. (4 Credits)

Analysis of selected Chinese works of literature, film, current news on media, online blogs, and social media from perspectives of critical theory, cultural studies, and Christian worldview, in light of the desired outcomes of the Chinese Language and Culture major and of the Christ at the Core Capstone Experience outcomes. Prerequisite: CHIN 302, CHIN 334, CHIN 337, or departmental approval. Additional course fee required: for Chinese OPIc (Oral Proficiency Interview on Computer).

General Education: SHAR

CHIN 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

Reading and individual study of selected aspects of Chinese culture, literature, or language. Department approval required.

French Courses

FREN 101. Elementary French I. (4 Credits)

Beginning French with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Cannot receive credit for both (FREN 101, 102) and FREN 103.

FREN 102. Elementary French II. (4 Credits)

Beginning French with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Cannot receive credit for both (FREN 101, 102) and FREN 103.

FREN 103. Accelerated Elementary French. (4 Credits)

Intensive study of beginning French with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Required of students with two years of high school French.

FREN 201. Intermediate French. (4 Credits)

Intermediate French with emphasis on reading, writing, and conversation in the context of French-speaking culture. Prerequisite to any further study in French. Prerequisite: FREN 102, FREN 103, (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

FREN 209. Intermediate French in Francophone Country. (4 Credits)

Conversation, composition, and grammar review, with on-site experience of history and culture of France. Offered in France only. (Subject to department approval.)

FREN 331. French Conversation. (4 Credits)

Intensive practice in oral and written communication with emphasis on listening comprehension and natural spoken expression based on videos, and readings of authentic materials.

FREN 333. Global French: Introduction to the Francophone World. (4 Credits)

Introduction to the Francophone world through exposure to a diversity of cultural artifacts (literature, newspaper articles, written and oral interviews, films, songs) from various French-speaking countries. This course includes a systematic review of French grammar with a special emphasis on written expression.

FREN 334. Culture And Communication. (2 Credits)

Study of French history, art, architecture, film, geography, social and economic structures; acquisition of skills useful in business. Different emphasis each year; may be repeated for credit. Course is offered occasionally.

FREN 335. Francophone Civilization and Culture. (2 to 4 Credits)

On-site study of Francophone history, architecture, art, politics, and society. Offered in Francophone countries only.

FREN 338. Advanced French in Francophone Country. (2 to 4 Credits)

Advanced grammar, conversation, and composition, taught by native speakers in a Francophone university setting. Course content and level variable. Offered in Francophone countries only.

FREN 347. Francophone Literature. (4 Credits)

Overview of Francophone writers from the 20th and 21st centuries with selected readings from various literary works. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

FREN 348. Adolescence & Early Adulthood in Modern French Literature. (4 Credits)

Exploration of representations of adolescence and early adulthood in French literature from the Renaissance to the present. Various genres: essays, plays, poetry, novels. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: LE

FREN 371. Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages. (4 Credits)

The study of various methodologies, theories, and techniques of foreign language teaching; introduction to linguistics for second-language acquisition. Practice in a variety of micro-teaching situations. Required for secondary education licensure; otherwise, an elective toward major or minor. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement.

FREN 431. Advanced Conversation. (2 Credits)

High level development of oral communication with emphasis on vocabulary acquisition and expression approaching native speech. Offered alternate years.

FREN 432. Advanced Grammar and Stylistics. (2 Credits)

General grammar review and advanced study of lesser-taught structures and nuances of meaning in order to improve critical awareness of stylistics and vocabulary and to develop authenticity of expression. Offered alternate years.

FREN 439. Topics in French Language and Literature. (2 or 4 Credits)

Varied subjects including genre and movement studies, culture, and advanced language. May be repeated for credit.

FREN 489. Topics in France. (2 Credits)

Varied subjects including literary and cultural studies. Offered in France only.

FREN 494. Senior Seminar. (4 Credits)

This course is designed to be a culminating experience in which students demonstrate skills and knowledge acquired over their course of study as a French major at a liberal arts institution. Prerequisites: FREN 331, FREN 333, study abroad, FREN 347 or FREN 348. Additional course fee required.

General Education: SHAR

FREN 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

Reading and individual study of some aspect of French culture, literature, or language. Department approval required.

FREN 496. Internship. (2 or 4 Credits)

Department approval required. Graded pass/fail. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing with French major.

German Courses

GERM 101. Elementary German I. (4 Credits)

Focus on proficiency development in listening, speaking, writing, and textual literacy in the context of cultural exploration. Cannot receive credit for both GERM 101/102 and GERM 103.

GERM 102. Elementary German II. (4 Credits)

Continued introduction to the German language and German-speaking Europe. Focus on proficiency development in listening, speaking, writing, and textual literacy in the context of cultural exploration. Cannot receive credit for both GERM 101/102 and GERM 103.

GERM 103. Accelerated Elementary German. (4 Credits)

For students with prior experience in German or demonstrated facility in language learning. Introduction to the German language and German-speaking Europe. Focus on proficiency development in listening, speaking, writing, and textual literacy in the context of cultural exploration. Cannot receive credit for both GERM 101/102 and GERM 103.

GERM 201. Intermediate German. (4 Credits)

Continued development of listening, speaking, writing and textual literacy proficiency and application of linguistic skills to cultural analysis and intercultural comparisons. Prerequisite: GERM 102 or GERM 103 (or equivalent). Additional course fee required: $25.

General Education: COMP

GERM 209. Intermediate German in Germany. (4 Credits)

Conversation, composition, and grammar review, with on-site experience of history and culture of Germany. Offered in Germany only. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 338. Advanced German in Germany. (4 Credits)

Development of oral proficiency. Discussion and interpretation of shorter literary texts, and social and political topics. Offered in Germany only. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 341. Contemporary German Culture and Mores. (4 Credits)

Introduction to institutions of contemporary German culture and society, including geography, gender relationships and the family, the church, the educational system, politics and government, minority populations, labor and economics, popular culture and media. Overview and analysis of behavioral norms and mores in the Federal Republic, coupled with comparative reference to the United States and broader German-speaking Europe. Intensive practice in oral and written communication with emphasis on listening comprehension and natural spoken expression based on audio recordings, video materials, and readings of authentic texts. Lab fee required.

GERM 342. Contemporary German Culture: Politics, Economics, and Current Events. (4 Credits)

An exploration of contemporary German culture as mediated through German newspapers, magazines, and various online sources. Special focus on current events with an emphasis on political and economic issues in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Continued review of grammar started in GERM 341. Conducted in German.

GERM 343. German Cultural Identity from Charlemagne to the Berlin Republic. (4 Credits)

A survey of cultural periods and developments in German-speaking Europe from early beginnings in the Holy Roman Empire to the present day Berlin Republic with special focus on the question of German national identity. The course will investigate a variety of cultural artifacts including short prose texts, poetry, dramatic performances, film clips, select artworks, and architectural examples. Emphasis on cultural literacy and communicative expression. Taught on-site in Munich, Berlin, and environs yearly during May-June "Wheaton in Germany" program. Conducted primarily in German. Prerequisites: either GERM 341 or 342 (and instructor approval).

Tags: GP, HP

GERM 346. Crime Narratives in Literature and Film. (4 Credits)

Reading and discussion of classic works in the crime fiction genre from Romanticism to the present, coupled with parallel screening and discussion of cinematic adaptations and stand-alone films. Prerequisite: A 300-level course in German or instructor permission.

Tags: LE

GERM 351. Topics in German Literature. (4 Credits)

Topics in German literature including genre, movement, and author studies. Taught primarily in German. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: a 300-level course in German or instructor permission.

Tags: LE

GERM 361. Topics in German Language and Cultural Studies. (4 Credits)

Focus on issues in German cinema, history, philosophy, society and theology, or on German language for special purposes, such as German for business and economics. Discussion, writing and presentation assignments, and major readings and film screenings in German. Prerequisite: GERM 341, GERM 342, GERM 343, or instructor approval. May be repeated for credit. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 363. Topics in German Language and Cultural Studies. (2 Credits)

Focus on issues in German cinema, history, philosophy, society and theology, or on German language for special purposes, such as German for business and economics. Discussion, writing and presentation assignments, and major readings and film screenings in German. Prerequisite: GERM 341, GERM 342, GERM 343, or instructor approval. May be repeated for credit. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 371. Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages. (4 Credits)

The study of various methodologies, theories, and techniques of foreign language teaching; introduction to linguistics for second-language acquisition. Practice in a variety of micro-teaching situations. Required for secondary education licensure; otherwise, an elective toward major or minor. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement.

GERM 372. German for Reading. (4 Credits)

Intensive introduction to German grammar for the special purpose of reading/translating academic prose (scholarly books and journal articles), with a particular focus on readings in theological disciplines and the humanities. Acquisition of a broad recognition vocabulary and development of basic reading comprehension abilities. Recommended for undergraduates anticipating graduate study in humanities and theological studies. Does not count toward Foreign Language Requirement. Not open to German majors/minors without special permission. Cross-listed with BITH 505. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement.

GERM 373. German for Reading II: Translation Workshop. (0 Credits)

Building on GERM 372/BITH 505, this course meets weekly during the subsequent semester for an intensive workshop in reading/translating academic prose (primary sources; scholarly books and articles), with a particular focus on readings in theological disciplines and the humanities. Emphasis on textual analysis, review and expansion of key structures, management of linguistic challenges, and development of global reading skills. Prerequisite: GERM 372, BITH 505 or the equivalent. Cross listed with BITH 506.

GERM 431. "Other" Germans: Turkish and Minority Experience.. (4 Credits)

Introduction to minority and multicultural identity and cultural hybridity in contemporary Germany, Austria and Switzerland, with focus on marginal societal groups, including evangelical Christians, quasi-religious sects, and Turkish and other immigrant populations. Analysis of immigrant literary and cinematic works and overview of social challenges in immigration and asylum policy, with particular focus on "guest workers," integration of Turkish immigrants, and Christian-Muslim relations. Prerequisites: GERM 341 or 342 or permission of instructor. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: GP

GERM 432. The Holocaust and Contemporary Jewish Experience. (4 Credits)

Written and oral analysis of depictions of the Holocaust in various national literary and cinematic media and of contemporary Jewish authors in the German-speaking countries; exploration of issues facing contemporary Jews in German-speaking Europe. Includes medium-length research paper. Conducted in German with some discussion in English. Course is offered occasionally.

Tags: GP

GERM 437. Topics in German Language and Literature. (2 or 4 Credits)

Varied subjects, including genre and movement studies, film, culture, and advanced language. May be repeated for credit. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 489. Special Topics. (2 to 4 Credits)

Advanced study in language, literature, and civilization in Germany. Offered in Germany only. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 491. Practicum. (0 to 2 Credits)

Offered in Germany only. Graded pass/fail. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 492. Faith & Literature & Film. (2 Credits)

(Section 1) 492-1 Agents of Change: Faith and the Social Order in German Literature and Film. Intensive seminar on interactions between society and varieties of belief in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Literary readings and analysis of cinematic works, supplemented with critical theories and socio-historical sources in German and English. Open to students who have taken GERM 494-2 or by permission. Offered alternate years. Cross-listed with GERM 494-1. (Section 2) 492-2 Faith and its Role in German Literature from the Medieval Period to the Fall of the Third Reich. Intensive seminar with emphasis on the intersection of German literature with Christian theological perspectives from the High Middle Ages until the end of World War II. Open to students who have taken GERM 494-1 or by permission. Offered alternate years. Cross-listed with GERM 494-2. Course is offered occasionally.

GERM 494. Senior Seminar. (4 Credits)

GERM 494. Agents of Change? Beliefs and Choices in Contemporary German-Speaking Societies. Intensive seminar on interactions between individuals, society, and varieties of belief in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Literary readings and analysis of cinematic works, supplemented with critical theories and socio-historical sources in German and English. Students will produce a major research paper that integrates Christian faith with the subject matter. Offered alternate years. Meets CATC Capstone Requirement. Prerequisite: GERM 341, 342, 343 (or other study abroad experience) or special permission of instructor. Additional course fee required: $50.00 (for ACTFL OPIc exit proficiency assessment). Course is offered occasionally.

General Education: SHAR

GERM 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

Reading and individual study of some aspect of German culture, literature, or language. Department approval required.

GERM 496. Internship. (2 or 4 Credits)

Department approval required. Graded pass/fail. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing with German major.

Latin American Latino/a Studies Courses

LALS 205. Latin American Immigration in the Windy City. (2 Credits)

This course explores the history of Latin American immigration to the Chicago metropolitan area and highlights contributions of the diverse communities and key challenges they face. The course incorporates readings from multiple disciplines in the field of Latin American Latino/a Studies. As part of the course, students will visit local communities and interact with community members. Although the course will be conducted in English, there will be opportunities to use Spanish. (Open to Wheaton College Summer Institute students only)

LALS 301. Introduction to Latin American and Latina/o Studies. (4 Credits)

This multidisciplinary course introduces students to key concepts and issues in Latin American and Latina/o Studies and familiarizes them with the diverse histories, economies, politics, societies and cultures of Latin America and Latina/os in the United States. Particular attention is given to ways Latin American and Latina/o Christianity contributes to the global church. Offered every year in the fall semester. Required for the Latin American Studies major and minor.

Tags: DUS, GP

LALS 494. Senior Seminar in Latin American and Latina/o Studies. (4 Credits)

Examination of a salient topic from multidisciplinary perspectives and in light of critical concerns in Latin American and Latina/o Studies and the Christian faith. Students produce a significant academic paper, explore integration of the major with the Christ at the Core curriculum, and consider their liberal arts studies at Wheaton in light of their Christian vocations. Prerequisite: Senior majors, or Junior majors who have completed 32 hours and study abroad. Additional course fee required: $50.

General Education: SHAR

Spanish Courses

SPAN 101. Elementary Spanish I. (4 Credits)

Beginning Spanish with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Introduction to aspects of culture of Spanish-speaking communities. Online drill work. Cannot receive credit for both (SPAN 101, 102) and SPAN 103.

SPAN 102. Elementary Spanish II. (4 Credits)

Beginning Spanish with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Introduction to aspects of culture of Spanish-speaking communities. Online drill work. Cannot receive credit for both (SPAN 101, 102) and SPAN 103.

SPAN 103. Accelerated Elementary Spanish. (4 Credits)

Intensive study of elementary Spanish with emphasis on listening comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Introduction to aspects of culture of Spanish-speaking communities. Required of students with only two years of high school Spanish. Online drill work.

SPAN 201. Intermediate Spanish. (4 Credits)

Conversation, composition, and grammar review based on readings and videos; exploration of various aspects of culture of Spanish-speaking communities. Required of students with three or four years of high school Spanish. Online drill work. Prerequisite to any further study in Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 102 or SPAN 103 (or equivalent).

General Education: COMP

SPAN 301. Spanish in Context: Cultural Explorations and Grammar Review. (4 Credits)

This course provides a review of intermediate level Spanish grammar while exploring cultural topics within the contemporary Spanish-speaking world. The course prepares students to pursue more advanced Spanish study and explores relevant issues such as race and ethnicity, families and gender, national identity, migration and tourism, and environmental challenges in a global context. The course counts toward the elective minor/major requirements for Spanish. Prerequisite: SPAN 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 331. Spanish Conversation. (4 Credits)

Intensive practice in oral communication with emphasis on listening comprehension and natural spoken expression based on videos and readings of authentic materials. Lab fee.

SPAN 332. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4 Credits)

Intensive grammar review and written practice in various forms to improve accuracy and authenticity of expression. Readings, films, and discussion. Lab fee required.

SPAN 334. Spanish Culture and Civilization. (4 Credits)

On-site study of Spanish history, architecture, art, politics, and society. Offered in Spain only. Prerequisite: SPAN 331 or SPAN 332, Corequisite: SPAN 352 (Spain country study).

Tags: GP

SPAN 335. Latin American Cultures and Civilizations. (4 Credits)

Readings and discussion of history, geography, political and social structures, various forms of artistic expression particular to Latin America. Recommended for International Relations and Education students.

Tags: GP

SPAN 337. Survey of Spanish American Literature. (4 Credits)

A general survey of the development of Spanish American literature from the pre-Columbian period to the present. Examination and analysis of representative authors and genres.

Tags: GP, LE

SPAN 338. Intensive Advanced Spanish. (4 Credits)

Advanced grammar, conversation, and composition taught by native speakers in Spain or a Latin American university setting. Course content and level variable. Offered in Spain or Latin America only.

SPAN 341. Writing the Empire: Spanish Literature before 1800. (4 Credits)

A general survey of Spanish literature from the beginnings of the language to 1800. Examination and analysis of representative authors and genres. Offered fall semester. Prerequisite: Spanish language proficiency.

Tags: GP, LE

SPAN 342. Global Spain: Spanish Literature after 1800. (4 Credits)

A general survey of Spanish literature from 1800 to the present. Examination and analysis of representative authors and genres. Offered spring semester. Prerequisite: Spanish language proficiency.

Tags: GP, LE

SPAN 343. Latin American Colonial Literature (1492-1800). (4 Credits)

This course provides a survey of Colonial Latin American Literature broadly understood as occurring between 1492 to 1825. It aims to generate a better understanding of how Latin American culture and society emerged conjunctly with the process of exploration and conquest and colonization of the continent. Colonial writing /narratives are explored as a medium of knowledge, power and resistance to the formation of colonial systems that prevail in Latin American nations today.

Tags: GP, LE

SPAN 344. Modern Latin American Literature. (4 Credits)

This is a course that traces the development of Spanish American literature from the modernismo movement (1882) to the present. The course examines the literature within some of the major themes of this time period, such as colonialism, cultural identity and hybridity, feminism and gender studies, the battle between an autochthonous American voice and the trend toward imitating European and North American literary voices, surrealism and the Avant-garde, and magical realism and its legacy that endures to the present day.

Tags: GP, LE

SPAN 352. Topics in Spanish Language and Hispanic Literatures and Culture. (2 Credits)

Varied subjects including genre, author, movement and country studies, film, culture, and advanced language. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: SPAN 331 or equivalent or permission of instructor. (2)

SPAN 353. Topics in Spanish Language and Hispanic Literatures and Culture. (4 Credits)

Varied subjects including genre, author, movement and country studies, film, culture, and advanced language. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: SPAN 331 or equivalent or permission of instructor. Course is offered occasionally.

SPAN 357. Latino Cultures in the United States. (4 Credits)

An introduction to the heterogeneity of cultures, histories and identities encompassed by the term Latino/a including various Latino sub-groups in the United States (Mexican, Caribbean, Central and South American), exploring social, political, economic and linguistic issues surrounding each of these groups today. Themes may include the Latino diaspora, cultural definition as identity, the U.S.-Mexican border, assimilation and resistance, Latino/a stereotyping, language and religion.

Tags: DUS

SPAN 371. Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages. (4 Credits)

The study of various methodologies, theories, and techniques of foreign language teaching; introduction to linguistics for second-language acquisition. Practice in a variety of micro-teaching situations. Required for secondary education licensure; otherwise, an elective toward major or minor. This course does not satisfy the language competency requirement.

SPAN 389. Costa Rica Culture & Society. (4 Credits)

The course focuses on the historical development of Costs Rica from the nineteenth century to the present, highlighting fundamental differences between Costa Rica, neighboring Nicaragua, and the rest of Central America. Topics include: banana production, the coffee industry, and tourism. Particular emphasis is given to Christ-centered responses to patterns of poverty, violence, injustice, and ethnic discrimination that such industries have created in Costa Rica and Central America.

Tags: GP

SPAN 439. Topics in Spanish Language and Hispanic Literatures and Culture. (2 or 4 Credits)

Varied subjects including genre and movement studies, film, culture, and advanced language. May be repeated for credit.

SPAN 489. Topics in Hispanic Culture. (2 to 4 Credits)

Varied subjects, including literary and cultural study with emphasis on Christian perspectives of Hispanic culture. Academic site visits. Offered only in Spain or Latin America.

SPAN 493. Mentoring Seminar. (2 or 4 Credits)

Faculty and student collaboration on a project of mutual interest. Limited enrollment - faculty approval required.

SPAN 494. Senior Seminar. (4 Credits)

Examination of literary or cultural topics from perspectives of contemporary critical theory. Students produce a major research paper that integrates faith with the subject matter. Prerequisites: SPAN 331, SPAN 332, study abroad; SPAN 341 or SPAN 342; SPAN 337. Lab fee required.

General Education: SHAR

SPAN 495. Independent Study. (1 to 4 Credits)

Reading and individual study of selected aspect of Hispanic culture, literature, or language. Department approval required.

SPAN 496. Internship. (2 or 4 Credits)

Department approval required. Graded pass/fail. Prerequisite: junior or senior standing with Spanish major.